Behavior

It’s a wolf-eat-wolf world in the wilds of Alaska – by Tim Mowry

This is not a study, rather it is an interesting article that I found credible based off of the quotes...

Behavioural risks in male dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones may complicate population-control benefits of desexing. McGreevy, Wilson, Starling, Serpell

Abstract Castration of dogs is a widespread practice with clear justification in population control and knock-on benefits for animal welfare....